At the center of battery technology lies, unsurprisingly enough, the battery – a combination of two or more electro-chemical cells which store energy in the form of chemical energy. Chemical energy which when connected to an electrical circuit, through which an electrical current may flow, transforms into electrical energy.
As the transition for energy needs shifts from dependence on fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy sources, especially in the decarbonization of the mobility sector, battery technology is an integral part of this change given its critical role in energy storage, which offsets the unreliability of intermittent power generation from solar, wind and motion.
Our focus here is on secondary cells and batteries – these are batteries in which the chemical reactions can be reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cells thereby restoring their original composition unlike primary cells which irreversibly transform chemical energy to electrical energy.
In this domain, pioneered by lead acid batteries, later succeeded by Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) and Nickel-Metal-Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries, by far the most dominant battery technology in recent times has been Lithium-ion batteries (LIB). These batteries address the issue of storing as much energy as possible in the smallest possible space and with the lowest possible weight. Lithium-ion batteries are comparatively low maintenance, deliver larger amounts of current, have no memory effect and also have a low self-discharge rate.
Anodes of lithium-ion batteries consist of a current collector and an active element, namely graphite, applied to it to store energy in the form of chemical bonds. In time, the need for higher charging rate and safer technologies especially for electric vehicles has led to the commercialization of alternative active materials like lithium titanate oxide (LTO).
The LTO is simply a rechargeable battery technology which is an improvement from the Lithium-ion Battery (LIB) technology. It replaces the graphite in the anode with Lithium titanate-oxide (LTO) and also forms the materials into a spinel 3D crystal structure; this promises higher power capacities, stable voltage, better cycling performance and higher safety. LTO, thus, has proven itself to be the most attractive battery technology for high power density batteries for implementation in large scale applications in both electric vehicles and large stationary power supplies.
The key salient features of LTO Batteries include a high discharge & charge current which is 10 times the capacity of other types of lithium batteries. The inclusion of lithium-titanate crystals over carbon particles over its surface effects a great increase in the surface area of the anode from 3 square meters per gram to 100 square meters per gram. This allows electrons to enter and exit the anode much more rapidly resulting in faster recharging and enhanced lifetime for the batteries.
LTO Technology Batteries charge safely in between six to ten minutes compared to eight hours required for other batteries - an energy storage solution which offers a recharge efficiency of up to 98%. A mobile energy storage solution that allows 10 times the lifecycle of standard lithium batteries. LTO technology offers high power solutions that deliver current peaks which are over 10 times that of regular lithium batteries. The nanotechnology ensures that LTO batteries have much better low and high temperature performance compared to other battery technologies – can operate in temperatures ranging from -40°C to +60°C. The complete absence of carbon avoids thermal runaway or overheating which is a major cause of fires in other traditional battery storage systems. The large surface area of the anode is an improvement which greatly increases the stability of the battery as well as safety.
Due to its inherent benefits, LTO battery technology can be used widely in mobility solutions like e-cars and e-vehicles, charging stations, solar/wind power storage, city solutions, UPS systems, home power back-up systems, electricity grids, communication stations as well as system critical backup power systems.
LTO technology supports the future - by enabling renewable and sustainable energy storage solutions with innumerable possibilities and applications in mobility, storage and industry.
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